Page of 119The Hunt for Ducks is Expandedby David R. Torre and Michael JaffeIntroductionFor 1995 Scott has expanded the hunting permit section of this catalogue to include state, local and tribal waterfowl stamps.One of the main purposes of the state waterfowl stamp programs has been to generate revenue for waterfowl conservation and restoration projects. In addition, waterfowl stamps validate hunting licenses and often serve as a control to limit the harvest within a speciﬁc geographical area.The need for waterfowl stamps can be traced to the early part of the twentieth century, when man and nature combined to reduce once abundant waterfowl populations to critically low levels. With the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918, the federal government accepted responsibility for the protection of waterfowl in the U.S. On March 16,1934, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the Migratory Bird Hunting Stamp Act into law (see Figure 1). Sale of federal waterfowl stamps provided funding for the purchase and development of federal waterfowl areas! FIGURE 1. 1934-35 FEDERAL WATERFOWL STAMP LARGE DIE PROOF.
Page of 219State and Local IssuesIt soon became evident that the federal government could not hope to run an effective waterfowl management program without the cooperation of state and local conservation agencies. State and local ofﬁcials were receptive to accepting joint responsibility for the restoration of waterfowl. However, they were lacking well-trained personnel to accumulate the data necessary for adequate management and also funding to purchase and develop their own waterfowl management areas.It was not long before some state and local governments began requiring hunters to purchase waterfowl hunting stamps. In this way, additional revenue could be generated for their own water fowl programs. For many years the state and local conservation agencies that used stamps did not have collectors in mind when designing their stamps. The stamps were solely intended to serve in licensing roles. For this reason, the vast majority of early state and local waterfowl stamps featured printed text only.In 1937, Ohio became the ﬁrst state government to issue waterfowl stamps. Ohio residents wishing to hunt on Pymatuning Lake, a large reservoir straddling the Ohio-Pennsylvania border, were required to purchase a special Pymatuning hunting stamp in addition to the federal waterfowl stamp and afﬁx both to their state hunting license (see Figure 2). This series was discontinued prior to the start of the 1946 season. FIGURE 2. THIS UNDATED PYMATUNING WATERFOWL STAMP WAS ISSUED DURING THE 1937 SEASONS.Page of 319In 1941, Marion County, Kansas became the ﬁrst local government to issue waterfowl stamps. County residents were required to purchase a stamp and afﬁx it to their state hunting license before hunting waterfowl on Marion County Lake (see Figure 3). FIGURE 3. IN 1941 MARION COUNTY, KANSAS BECAME THE FIRST LOCAL GOVERNMENT TO REQUIRE THE PURCHASE OF A STAMP TO HUNT WATERFOWL. SHOWN HERE USED ON LICENSE WITH 1941-42 FEDERAL WATERFOWL AND KANSAS QUAIL STAMPS.
Page of 419The 1943 Marion County hunting stamps were the ﬁrst issued by any level of government In the U.S. to bear the inscription “Duck Stamp.” Although discontinued following the 1973 season, the Marion County stamps rank second only to the federal stamps as the longest consecutively issued series of waterfowl stamps in the U.S. (see Figures 4 and 5). FIGURE 4. IN 1943 MARION COUNTY ISSUED THE FIRST TRUE DUCK STAMP IN THE WORLD.
Page of 519 FIGURE 5. ONLY 50 STAMPS WERE PRINTED AND FIVE SOLD IN 1973. THIS BROUGHT TO AN END THE LONGEST RUNNING SERIES OF STATE OR LOCAL STAMPS IN THE 20TH CENTURY – SECOND OVERALL TO THE FEDERALS.
Page of 619Following WWII, another major waterfowl crisis developed in the U.S. The simultaneous return of thousands of American soldiers led to an unprecedented hunting boom across the country. For some regions, the Increased hunting pressure caused waterfowl populations to decline dramatically.During this time. South Dakota received much national attention for its ability to maintain a large net production of ducks. This placed pressure on South Dakota Game, Fish and Parks ofﬁcials to maximize duck production. Duck production is related to the amount of suitable habitat available for breeding. In the late 1940s an added drought brought about a full blown crisis. Therefore, in 1949 South Dakota became the ﬁrst state government to issue waterfowl stamps which were required statewide (see Figures 6 and 7). The revenue obtained from the sale of these stamps in 1949 and 1950 was used to purchase and develop additional waterfowl habitat for the “Duck Factory.” FIGURE 6. IN 1949 SOUTH DAKOTA ISSUED THE FIRST WATERFOWL STAMPS REQUIRED STATEWIDE. FIGURE 7. AFTER 1950, THE CRISIS SUBSIDED AND THE STAMPS WERE DISCONTINUED.
Page of 719The waterfowl crisis of the 1940s subsided in the early 1950s. However, the demand for public hunting grounds, which also arose following WWII, continued to increase. In large part to satisfy this demand,many state conservation agencies purchased and developed additional waterfowl management areas at this time. While some portions of these served as refuge and feeding areas, other portions were opened to public hunting at appropriate times of the year. In the 1950s, California and Illinois began issuing stamps which they required hunters to purchase when using such areas. In California, waterfowl stamps were issued for the Honey Lake and Madeline Plains Waterfowl management areas. Illinois issued “daily usage” stamps which were used at various public hunting grounds throughout the state (see Figures8 and 9). Through the 20th Century, the Honey Lake stamps were the longest consecutively issued series of waterfowl stamps by any state government (1956 to 1986). The daily usage stamps are still being used today and have been issued over an even longer period of time, although not consecutively (1953 to the present). FIGURE 8. 1956-57 HONEY LAKE WATERFOWL STAMP, FORMALLY IN THE VANDERFORD COLLECTION. FIGURE 10. THE EARLIEST ILLINOIS DAILY USAGE STAMPS RECORDED ARE FROM 1951 AND IMPERFORATE. STARTING IN 1952, THE STAMPS WERE PERFORATED AND REMAINED SIMILAR THROUGH 1972.
Page of 819Tribal IssuesIn the late 1950s, the Rosebud Sioux Tribe in South Dakota became the ﬁrst tribal government to require the purchase of stamps before hunting waterfowl on an Indian Reservation. The stamps were intended to be placed on a tribal hunting license (see Figure 11). Occasionally, hunters afﬁxed the stamps to their state hunting license in error ( see ﬁgure 12). FIGURE 11. IN 1959 THE ROSEBUD SIOUX BECAME THE FIRST TRIBAL GOVERNMENT TO REQUIRE THE PURCHASE OF STAMPS PRIOR TO HUNTING FOR WATERFOWL ON THEIR RESERVATION. FIGURE 12. ROSEBUD TRIBAL GAME BIRD STAMP ISSUED IN 1961. THE STAMP HAS BEEN USED ON A SOUTH DAKOTA LICENSE WITH A STATE SMALL GAME STAMP.
Page of 919Stamps have been issued and required of hunters on the Rosebud Reservation in every decade since the 1950s. In the early 1960s additional Indian tribes began requiring hunters to purchase stamps (see Figures 13 and 14). FIGURE 13. THE LOWER BRULE SIOUX TRIBE ISSUED THEIR FIRST WATERFOWL STAMPS IN 1962. FIGURE 14. THE CROW CREEK SIOUX TRIBE STARTED ISSUING STAMPS REQUIRED TO HUNT WATERFOWL IN 1961. FOR 1963, REMAINDERS FROM 1962 WERE REUSED BY CHANGING THE DATE WITH A BALL POINT PEN.